Hola estoy de vacaciones y escribo desde el “PREIKESTOLEN”  en el suroeste de noruega. Que os lo paséis bien.


We have finished the school year with very good biology and geology results.
Furthermore this year we have tried with the experience of working with the blog, it has been useful as a class diary but also as our own brief encyclopedia or resources list to get information from.

If we check out the data we have edited 109 posts along the school year, it is astonishing the number of 23,450 up to today (june 30th) and the busiest day a total of 580 people came around our blog, it was on Tuesday, June 22nd, 2010.

Looking at the graphs either by weeks or by months we can remember the hard beginnings when neither the students nor the teacher knew anything about blogging, little by little we started with the project in a calm way, just after Christmas we decided to reactivate the blog and since then our work and the number of visits has been increasing, in June (our last month with the project) we have achieved a number of 8480 visits.

I am proud of your work and by the beginning of the year I could not imagine such a success of this blog.

This is a project finished in the academical sense, but now you can feel free to keep on posting here your opinions, suggestions, interests, or whatever you feel like. Congratulations again for this great work, it has been a pleasure learning with you.

Enjoy the summer.

; –  )

The spengler’s freshwater mussel is an specie of freshwater bivalve mollusk that it currently only known scientifically confirmed the presence of populations living in the Ebro basin. Is originally from the big atlantic and mediterranean rivers from occidental Europe and North Africa.

It is a mollusk in the shape of a clam, that is, is a bivalve. It grows to 20 inches, live up to 80 years and lives in fresh water. It has a extremelly thick and heavy shell,blackish, looking Curb as an human ear.

The little amount of spengler’s freshwater mussel is found actually distributed in channels with clean water forming isolated colonies located in shallow beaches with gravel bottom consolidated and well ventilated. Its natural habitat is the funding of gravel, mud, sand, silt and stones, where itlives half-burried. Formerly major banks was shallow and also accumulates in deep pools of rivers by the drag characteristic of the dynamics of river.

Specifically malacologists only aware of the presence of this species in the province of Zaragoza and Tarragona.
In Zaragoza are known colonies in the Imperial Channel( where there are more or less two thousand of them). In Tauste Channel and in the area of Sastago in the Ebro river, without quantifying. In Tarragona there are know colonies in the final stretch of the Ebro.

The species can not be played since before 1970 and has over 30 years waiting for their own extinction. The fertility of the spengler’s freshwater mussel is huge. So, why it can not reproduce? This species of mollusk is multiplied by a larvae-called glochidia, which discharged into the river water. But the complexity of the reproduction of the nymph is that the larvae can only develop if they remain a part of their life cycle entrenched within the guts of a small number of fish species. One is the Atlantic sturgeon disappeared from the waters of Ebro does exactly the same time he has not played the Naiad. The other species is the pitch blenny monk, who is on the verge of extinction due to pollution of water and sand and gravel extraction of funds from the Ebro River.




Cities are growing massively, and three main problems caused by this expansion are the increasing number in population, the wasted time in traffic jams and long displacements and the pollution, noise and accidents due to the big amount of private vehicles.

This is why in some towns and cities in Europe, like ours here in Zaragoza, people have protested and proposed some changes in the public transport services and the private uses of vehicles in the streets.

Some measures carried out by the city council are the so called ‘Ecobuses’ which work with biodiesel (a respectful fuel with the environment made with renewable raw materials such as vegetal oils or animal fats).

Another solution to the problems above and for short displacements the use of bicycles or just walking around the streets (for which the sidewalks of the streets have been extended).

Bicycles are a perfect mean of transport for cities like this, they are cheap, respectful with the environment and easy to use and transport. These are the main reasons why the city council has started up the expansion of tracks for bicycles around and in the center of the town.

In order to promote the use of bicycles, a new system of circulation by means of payment bicycles has begun (Bizi). These bicycles are available by a reasonable price and just by getting a “bike card” you can use any of the bicycled disposed around the town during half an hour.

sources: http://www.bizizaragoza.com/

pictures: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Bylnku30ukw/R6XUBq1Kn3I/AAAAAAAAAUo/2iv49CHqJhg/s400/Zaragoza%2B2007%2B194.jpg , http://www.zgzhoy.es/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/2545563595_ebf86f7973.jpg , http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Tuz_Ecobus.jpg

A hydroelectric plant is one that uses water power to generate electricity. They are the current result of the evolution of the old mills exploiting the flow of rivers to move a wheel.
The production of electricity is one of the most important in Spain. Large hydroelectric plants are located in the Pyrenees, in the reservoirs that dot the rivers, although the biggest plant is located in the reservoir Mequinenza in the Ebro.


How does it work?
Its objective is to convert the potential energy, contained in the form of water, into electrical energy using turbines coupled to generators.
The large amount of water that is retained is through a dam, forming an artificial lake or reservoir will generate a waterfall, to effectively release the potential energy and then transform it into electrical energy.
Water management is to carry water from the dam by a gallery with just drop driving up to a reservoir called the chimney of expansion. From this chimney started a pipe that carries the water to the engine room of the plant. After that the water is returned to the river, using a water channel below.
In the plant there are electrical equipment composed of turbine-generator groups. The forced water that is coming through the gallery is conducted to the turbine blades, which connected by an axe to the alternator rotor make it turn, inducing in the stator a high intensity electric current and medium voltage. This means a transformer will be of low intensity and high voltage, therefore suitable for transport and distribution to consume centres.

Main disadvantages.
– The construction and operation of the dam and the reservoir are the main source of the environmental impacts. The powerful projects dams can cause irreversible environmental changes, in a very large geographical area.
– The flooding of the earth to form the reservoir, and the alteration of water flow downstream. These effects exert direct impacts on soils, vegetation, wildlife, fisheries, climate and human population of the area.

 Main advantages.
The obvious benefit of the hydroelectric project is the electric energy, it can support economic development and improve the quality of life in the service area. Hydroelectric projects are very labor-intensive and provide employment opportunities. The roads and other infrastructure can give people greater access to markets for their products, schools for their children, health care and other social services.
– Moreover, the generation of hydroelectric power provides an alternative to burning fossil fuels or nuclear energy, which can meet energy demand without producing hot water, air emissions, ash, radioactive waste and emissions of CO2.

El Moncayo es una montaña del Sistema Ibérico situada entre las provincias de Zaragoza y Soria, en España. Tiene 2.314,30 m de altitud y es la máxima cumbre del Sistema Ibérico y uno de los picos más relevantes de la Península Ibérica. Desde 1978, el enclave del monte es «Parque Natural de la Dehesa del Moncayo» con una actual superficie protegida de 9.848 ha.

Flora y Fauna
El Moncayo constituye un singular enclave ecológico al conformarse como espacio de frontera entre el ambiente húmedo propio del centro de Europa, y el ambiente seco propio del mundo mediterráneo. Se pueden encontrar carrascales en la parte bajar de la montaña y conforme se va ascendiendo especies caducifolias como el rebollo. Al llegar a la cima te puedes encontrar también pequeñas plantas rastreras como el piorno, el enebro rastrero o la sabina rastrera. También aparecen especies propias de climas más norteños, como los robles Quercus robur y Q. petraea, de escasa presencia en Aragón. El Moncayo tiene también un denso pinar de repoblación de entre 900 y 1800 m que cubren sus laderas. Estas especies de pino son el pino silvestre, pino negro, pino laricio y pino rodeno. La variedad de ambientes existentes en el Moncayo hace que la fauna también sea rica y variada, adaptándose a las diferentes condiciones presentes. En las zonas altas son frecuentes la alondra, collalba gris, bisbita alpina o tarabilla común. También están presentes el acentor común, el roquero rojo o el colirrojo tizón. En los matorrales domina el pardillo común, escribano montesino, mosquitero papialbo y petirrojo. El arrendajo y el petirrojo son las aves más comunes en las zonas arboladas. En los bosques de frondosas aparte del petirrojo, también te puedes encontrar especies como el mito, el carbonero común, el herrerillo común o el mirlo. Sobrevolando las zonas altas se pueden ver abundantes buitres leonados, así como algún alimoche, cernícalo común, culebrera europea o águila real, mientras que en zonas más bajas puede observarse águilas calzadas o ratoneras. En el interior del bosque se puede avistar algún abejero europeo, azor o gavilán. Algunos de los animales nocturnos que te puedes encontrar en el Moncayo son el cárabo y numerosas especies de murciélagos. En cuanto a anfibios y reptiles, en las zonas húmedas es habitual la presencia de rana común, sapo común y sapo partero. Es posible encontrar tritones jaspeados y palmeados, luciones y culebras de agua. En otros ambientes pueden aparecer culebras de escalera o víboras hocicudas. Entre los mamíferos existentes en el paque están el jabalí, el corzo, el zorro, la garduña, la gineta, el gato montés, el erizo y varias especies de ratones, musarañas y topillos.

Se encuentra dentro de una comarca de clima mediterraneo con claros matices continentales; zona de transición entre el clima de la Depresión del Ebro y la Mesaeta Soriana. Los veranos suelen ser suaves y cortos con alguna precipitación de carácter tormentoso y los inviernos largos y fríos. La mayor intensidad de precipitaciones se da en otoño y primavera. Conforme se asciende en altura se imponen unas matizaciones climáticas consistentes en aumento de las precipitaciones y descenso de las temperaturas.

La formación del macizo del Moncayo tuvo lugar en la Era Terciaria como consecuencia de los movimientos alpinos. Los materiales rocosos más característicos son areniscas, cuarcitas y pizarras, adosados a los cuales se encuentran materiales más modernos de tipo calcáreo. En sus laderas pueden apreciarse restos de huellas glaciares, destacando los circos conocidos como Pozo de San Miguel, San Gaudioso y Morca.

This post is in spanish language instead of english. All the same, I’ve decided to make it short and simple which I’ve included some basic links for further explanation.     

Los Siluros fueron una poderosa y belicosa tribu que habitó en la isla de Britania, y ocuparon aproximadamente los territorios de Monmouthshire, Breconshire y Glamorganshire.

La calidad de las aguas de un río se puede medir por las especies que viven en él. Según este criterio, el Ebro a su paso por Zaragoza no saldría bien parado, al menos por lo que deja a la vista estos días: siluros que comen palomas.

“Los siluros son de esas especies oportunistas a las que no les importa comer basura y desperdicios. Son ratas de río”, explica José Antonio Domínguez, miembro del grupo ecologista Triacanthos. “Mucha gente lo ve como un espectáculo pero en realidad es un grave problema porque es una especie exótica que acaba con las autóctonas”, añade. De todas formas, no se muestra sosprendido, pues recuerda que se insistitó hasta la saciedad que una alteración sobre el río como la del azud traería problemas de este tipo.




Hope you like it.


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