Recombinant DNA is a form of DNA that does not exist naturally, which is created by combining DNA sequences that would not normally occur together. In terms of genetic modification, recombinant DNA (rDNA) is introduced through the addition of relevant DNA into an existing organismal DNA, such as the plasmids of bacteria, to code for or alter different traits for a specific purpose, such as antibiotic resistance. It differs from genetic recombination, in that it does not occur through processes within the cell, but is engineered.

Restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded or single stranded DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites. Such enzymes, found in bacteria and archaea, are thought to have evolved to provide a defense mechanism against invading viruses. Inside a bacterial host, the restriction enzymes selectively cut up foreign DNA in a process called restriction; host DNA is methylated by a modification enzyme (a methylase) to protect it from the restriction enzyme’s activity. To cut the DNA, a restriction enzyme makes two incisions, once through each sugar-phosphate backbone (i.e. each strand) of the DNA double helix.

Plasmid is an extra chromosomal DNA molecule separate from the chromosomal DNA which is capable of replicating independently from the chromosomal DNA. They are double stranded and in many cases, circular. Plasmids usually occur naturally in bacteria, but are sometimes found in eukaryotic organisms.Plasmid size varies from 1 to over 1,000 kilobase pairs. The number of identical plasmids within a single cell can range anywhere from one to even thousands under some circumstances.

Cloning in biology is the process of similar producing populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.

Advertisements