Hola estoy de vacaciones y escribo desde el “PREIKESTOLEN”  en el suroeste de noruega. Que os lo paséis bien.


As I don´t  found information about bears in english , I have my information in spanish. Here is the information I had sumarised:

“A principios de este siglo, sólo quedaban dos núcleos: uno occidental y otro oriental. A nivel pirenaico, puede hablarse actualmente de tres núcleos. En lo que se refiere a la vertiente española, el núcleo occidental se ha ido reduciendo paulatinamente. El núcleo central cuenta hoy en día con una presencia esporádica. El núcleo oriental quedaría en territorio francés en su totalidad. Estos tres núcleos pirenaicos estaban interrelacionados, pues existía una presencia esporádica de osos entre ellos hasta los años sesenta. Todas las observaciones directas de huellas, indicios y daños al ganado de 1979 a 1991 se localizaron sobre un mapa dividido en unidades de aproximadamente 1.000 hectáreas, definidas por límites orográficos. Se pueden distinguir las siguientes zona Echo, Aragüés y el valle del Roncal de Navarra. El límite occidental queda definido por el valle de Salazar y el oriental por el valle de Aisa.

En 1954 evaluaba la población osera pirenaica en unos 70 osos.

En 1970, se hablaba de unos 30 osos en el Pirineo francés. En 1983, cuando ya se contaba con un mismo método de evaluación a ambos lados del Pirineo,contábamos con un mínimo de 13 osos en el Pirineo occidental y 6 en el Pirineo central. En 1991 ya sólo quedaban 11 osos en el Pirineo occidental y 1 ó 2 en el Pirineo central. Entre 1983 y 1991 han desaparecido prácticamente el núcleo oriental y central. . La última reproducción conocida es de 1980.

Entre 1977 y 1979 se produjeron activos desplazamientos desde los bosques de Ste. Engrace, Lanne, Arette hacia Roncal, Ansó y Echo y la parte suroeste del Valle de Aspe.

En el Pirineo occidental español entre 1983 y 1991 sólo se detectan huellas de desplazamientos, acompañados de gran número de ataques al ganado que supusieron la muerte segura de al menos 2 osos (tal vez 3).

La ganadería, el turismo y la explotación forestal son las tres actividades económicas fundamentales de la zona.”

I took the information from a govermet web page : http://www.mma.es/secciones/biodiversidad/especies_amenazadas/vertebrados/mamiferos/pdf/CAP16_OSOPARDO.pdf.

This is a good web page about ecology : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_movement.

The profesor speaks about how nature selects specimens. He puts en example of how a plant makes a wooden ball to protect it from a parasite. Then he explains with the example of this plant the types of population that can live in a zone.

This is the original population, with a lot of medium especimens and a few very big and a few very small.

Then he explains what happens when there are much more specimens of normal size and any bigger or smaller, this is stabilizing selection.

He explains that this is directional selection, he sais that this can happen to his example if one year there is a lack of woodpeckers, there would be more bigger specimens.

This is diversifying or disruptive selection and here there are more small and big specimens than normal size specimens.

Finally he speaks about sexual selection, and that are the females the ones who choose the male and the genes that she wants to pass to her offspring .


The Emperor Penguin is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and only lives in the Antarctica. The male and female are similar in plumage and size, reaching 122cm in height and weighing anywhere from 22 to 45kg. The dorsal side and head are black and sharply delineated from the white belly, pale-yellow breast and bright-yellow ear patches. Like all penguins it is flightless, with a streamlined body, and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat.

Its diet consists primarily of fish, but can also include crustaceans and cephalopods. In hunting, the species can remain submerged up to 18minutes, diving to a depth of 535m. It has several adaptations to facilitate this, including an unusually structured hemoglobin to allow it to function at low oxygen levels, solid bones to reduce barotrauma, and the ability to reduce its metabolism and shut down non-essential organ functions.

The Emperor Penguin is best known for the sequence of journeys adults make each year in order to mate and to feed their offspring. The only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter, it treks 50–120km over the ice to breeding colonies which may include thousands of individuals. The female lays a single egg, which is incubated by the male while the female returns to the sea to feed; parents subsequently take turns foraging at sea and caring for their chick in the colony. The lifespan is typically 20 years in the wild, although observations suggest that some individuals may live to 50 years of age.

Adaptations to cold

A emperor penguin diving.

The Emperor Penguin breeds in the coldest environment of any bird species; air temperatures may reach 40C and wind speeds may reach 144km/h. Water temperature is a frigid −1.8C,which is much lower than the Emperor Penguin’s average body temperature of 39C. The species has adapted in several ways to counteract heat loss.] Feathers provide 80–90% of its insulation, and it has a layer of sub-dermal fat which may be up to 3cm thick before breeding. Its stiff feathers are short and densely packed over the entire skin surface. With around 15 feathers per cm2, it has the highest feather density of any bird species. An extra layer of insulation is formed by separate shafts of downy filaments between feathers and skin. Muscles allow the feathers to be held erect on land, reducing heat loss by trapping a layer of air next to the skin. Conversely, the plumage is flattened in water, thus waterproofing the skin and the downy underlayer.Preening is vital in facilitating insulation and in keeping the plumage oily and water-repellent.

The Emperor Penguin is able to thermoregulate (maintain its core body temperature) without altering its metabolism, over a wide range of temperatures. Known as the thermoneutral range, this extends from -10 to 20C .Below this temperature range, its metabolic rate increases significantly, although an individual can maintain its core temperature between 37.6 and 38.0C down to −47C. Movements by swimming, walking, and shivering are three mechanisms for increasing metabolism; a fourth process involves an increase in the breakdown of fats by enzymes, which is induced by the hormone glucagon.

Adaptations to pressure and low oxygen

In addition to the cold, the Emperor Penguin encounters another stressful condition on deep dives —markedly increased pressure of up to 40 times that of the surface, which in most other terrestrial organisms would cause barotrauma. The bones of the penguin are solid rather than air-filled, which eliminates the risk of mechanical barotrauma.Also this thik bones alow then to dive so deep with out floting. However, it is unknown how the species avoids the effects of nitrogen-induced decompression sickness.

While diving, the Emperor Penguin’s oxygen use is markedly reduced; as its heart rate is reduced to as low as five beats per minute and non-essential organs are shut down, thus facilitating longer dives. Its hemoglobin and myoglobin are able to bind and transport oxygen at low blood concentrations; this allows the bird to function with very low oxygen levels that would otherwise result in loss of consciousness.


The Emperor Penguin searches for prey in the open water of the Southern Ocean, in either ice-free areas of open water or tidal cracks in pack ice. One of its feeding strategies is to dive to around 50m, where it can easily spot sub-ice fish like the Bald notothen swimming against the bottom surface of the sea-ice; it swims up to the bottom of the ice and catches the fish. It then dives again and repeats the sequence about half a dozen times before surfacing to breathe.

I had foud the information in this wep pages:




These are  two normal rats and one geneticlly modified.

Some chimeras, like the blotched mouse shown, are created through genetic modification techniques like gene targeting.

These fishes had been genetically  modified.

These is a group of people looking at a  field with genetically modified wheat.

That is a mixture of a zebra and a horse.I thought it was genetically modified but is a human made, a hibrid like the donkey.

Is that a cow,  is that a cat? No is a cat-caw. I am sorry but this is a mistake, that animal do not exist.

That is a genetically modified  corncob , it seems to be normal but it isn´t.

The information of this link is about GMO´s and icludes this picture explaining why is not normal wheat.

These is how is treaty the diabetes, puting a insuline gene in  a plasmid.

I don´t  know how to upload videos ,so here are the links:






As the teacher asked me this are the links of the imajes, they are in orther:








Recombinant DNA is a form of DNA that does not exist naturally, which is created by combining DNA sequences that would not normally occur together. In terms of genetic modification, recombinant DNA (rDNA) is introduced through the addition of relevant DNA into an existing organismal DNA, such as the plasmids of bacteria, to code for or alter different traits for a specific purpose, such as antibiotic resistance. It differs from genetic recombination, in that it does not occur through processes within the cell, but is engineered.

Restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded or single stranded DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites. Such enzymes, found in bacteria and archaea, are thought to have evolved to provide a defense mechanism against invading viruses. Inside a bacterial host, the restriction enzymes selectively cut up foreign DNA in a process called restriction; host DNA is methylated by a modification enzyme (a methylase) to protect it from the restriction enzyme’s activity. To cut the DNA, a restriction enzyme makes two incisions, once through each sugar-phosphate backbone (i.e. each strand) of the DNA double helix.

Plasmid is an extra chromosomal DNA molecule separate from the chromosomal DNA which is capable of replicating independently from the chromosomal DNA. They are double stranded and in many cases, circular. Plasmids usually occur naturally in bacteria, but are sometimes found in eukaryotic organisms.Plasmid size varies from 1 to over 1,000 kilobase pairs. The number of identical plasmids within a single cell can range anywhere from one to even thousands under some circumstances.

Cloning in biology is the process of similar producing populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.